Final -ed Pronunciation: Watch/t/ not Watch/ɪd/

Microphone & Sound Wave Vibrations

t/d/ɪd

There are 3 different ways to pronounce the final -ed sound.

  1. The /t/ sound (unvoiced) as in watchedworked, washed, hoped, relaxed, liked 
  2. The /d/ sound (voiced) as in called, amused, played, planned, named, loved
  3. The /ɪd/ sound (extra syllable) as in started, wanted, needed, wasted, decided, illustrated

Voiced

Voiced means that when you make the sound, you can feel a vibration in your throat. Place your hand on the front of your neck. If you say, “Mmmmm….” you will feel a vibration in your throat.

Unvoiced

Unvoiced means that when you make the sound, you can’t feel a vibration in your throat. Place your hand on the front of your neck. If you say, “Sshhhh…” you will not feel a vibration in your throat.

Rules

A common pronunciation mistake made by non-native English speakers is adding an extra syllable to regular past tense verbs.

While it will take some practice to improve your pronunciation, the first step is to learn the rules.

Rule 1: If the final sound of the base verb (watch, work, wash, hope, relax, like) is unvoiced, the pronunciation of the final -ed is also unvoiced /t/. Some voiceless consonants include: f, k, p, sh, ch, s, x

Rule 2: If the final sound of the base verb (call, amuse, play, plan, name, love) is voiced, the pronunciation of the final -ed is also voiced /d/. Some voiced consonants include: b, g, j, l, m, n, r, v, z 

Rule 3: Only add an extra syllable to words that end in t, d, te, de 

Although I have given you some common voiceless and voiced consonants, be careful. Except for in Rule 3, it is the sound, not the letter, that determines whether the -ed will be voiced or unvoiced. Like and love both end in e, but one is unvoiced and one is voiced.

Exceptions: In English, there are always exceptions. Certain words break the rules when used as adjectives. This is a basic lesson, so we are not going to explore exceptions now. They are not common. Most of the time, the rules above will apply.

The short video below provides a clear and helpful explanation

Ready to practice? Here is an online game to test your knowledge.

Prefer a prettier, younger British teacher? Lucy is lovely, isn’t she? 😉

There is one more video on my Facebook page if you want a bit more practice!

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